What Is PGD?
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a type of genetic screening that looks for disease-causing genes before implantation. PGD testing is useful for parents who have a family history of genetic problems and want to avoid passing them on to their future children. In some circumstances, the disease-causing genes may be carried by either one or both parents. In that case, it’s possible that none of them are afflicted by the sickness.
PGD genetic testing is done to check for the following things:
- Changing the position of genes (swapping of chromosomal materials or other kinds of structural alterations). Birth abnormalities, miscarriage, and even mental disability can all result from genetic translocation.
- The syndrome of Marfan.
- The disease Huntington’s.
- Tay-Sachs’s disease and cystic fibrosis are examples of recessive genetic illnesses.
- Chromosome-borne genetic disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and haemophilia.
- Chromosome numbers that are abnormal.
PGD, like PGS, is used as a supplement to IVF treatment. It’s done just before the embryo is implanted into the mother’s womb. Women above the age of 36 and those undergoing IVF therapy have higher PGD success rates. Furthermore, because it examines for specific genes, PGD IVF is significantly more complicated than PGS IVF.
Conditions for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD):
- Patients going through IVF
- Age 35 or more
- With a background of two or more miscarriages in a succession
- A history of 2two or more unsuccessful IVF processes (new or even frozen embryo transfers)
Advantages of PGD
The goal of pre-implantation diagnosis (PGD/PGS) is to reduce the risk of having a kid with a serious illness or even to prevent miscarriages. Furthermore, it improves the chances of conception whether there are partners with a greater maternal age, a history of pregnancy loss, or even a history of IVF failures.
Challenges of PGD
Medical diagnosis, like any other laboratory process, is likely to be inaccurate and unreliable. Misdiagnosis is still possible with PGD. Pregnancies with an abnormal baby, a miscarriage, or tubal (ectopic) pregnancies are still possible because they are common in non-IVF conceptions. As a result, it is still recommended that pregnant women seek prenatal medical diagnosis after the start of their pregnancy, as recommended by PGD.
PGD may cause issues for the embryo or potentially diminish the embryo’s chances of implantation. When the embryo being biopsied is in the blastocyst stage, this is improbable.
PGD processes aren’t perfect, and even if the embryo isn’t perfect, they can still produce standard results in a small proportion of cases. In that instance, the infant could be abnormal, or a miscarriage could occur. In a small percentage of cases, the embryo may be healthy but the PGD results are irregular, resulting in the rejection of healthy and balanced embryos for transfer into the uterus. In other cases, PGD may find practically all embryos to be defective, in which case no embryos will be transported into the uterus unless the abnormality is minor in form.
Precisely what hereditary ailments will PGD test?
PGD will look for single gene defects that could lead to diseases including muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anaemia, cystic fibrosis, and Tay-Sachs syndrome. PGD can easily detect genetic issues such as Trisomy twenty-one, or even Down syndrome, as well as Trisomy eighteen, often known as Edwards’ syndrome.